L'évolution de l'appareil photo
The origins of photography
The history of photography may seem quite modern, yet the first discoveries that allowed the democratization of photography date back to antiquity! A look back at the history of photography.
The darkroom of Mo Ti
The pinhole of Aristotle
The camera obscura of Leonardo da Vinci
Aristotle’s pre-photographic concept was later taken up by Leonardo da Vinci in 1515 with the camera obscura or black box. He took up with precision the work of his predecessors and suggested that this invention could allow artists to better reproduce landscapes. This is really the starting point of photography since until the 19th century, this is the means used by “photographers” to capture moments. There is no logic of printing or chemical processes, but simply a layer of the landscape through this camera obscura.
The lens of Girolamo Cardano
The first real photographs
It is from the 19th century that notable inventions in photography began to appear: it is the appearance of chemical processes that allowed a real advance.
The heliograph of Niepce
Still using a black box, the idea is to fix an image, in other words it is heliography. The technique that Nicéphore Niepce used is to use a tin plate sensitized with bitumen with a darkroom. He let the image reflect on the plate and waited between 10 and 20 hours for the image to fix itself on the plate thanks to a chemical process. It is the first time in history that an image is fixed on a support and that we can really talk about photography. This happened in 1827.
The daguerreotype of Louis Daguerre
Some 10 years later, Louis Daguerre created and marketed what will be considered the first photographic camera. Still using the black box concept, Daguerre used a copper plate covered with a layer of silver nitrate exposed to Iodine vapors. This is the process that we know today as silver photography.
Portable and electromechanical cameras
In 1888, the first portable camera was created by Georges Eastman with the brand Kodak. The inventor had the idea of integrating a film instead of sensitive plates which were neither practical nor precise. The camera must simply be developed in a workshop to receive the photographs, the negative and the camera recharged, which is a revolutionary idea in the photo industry.
The Brownie - Kodak
After the success of its first camera, the Kodak company launches a simple and inexpensive camera humorously named the brownie. It is a cardboard box with a lens that costs only 1 dollar, so the cameras gradually begin to be known by a wider audience.
The Leica 1 and the first photographs by Robert Capa
Oskar Barnack, an engineer at Leitz, created a lightweight yet sturdy camera called the Leica 1. Barnack introduced a new type of film with 35mm film more commonly used in the film industry. It was with this camera that the famous photographer Robert Capa took his wartime photo reports in the 1930s, photographs that have marked generations and are still studied in history classes.
Color Film - Kodak
The democratization of cameras
The first single lens reflex camera
In the same year, the Hasselbad 1600F model was launched. It is a camera characterized by the presence of a single lens that allows both shooting and viewing through the use of movable mirrors. This is the camera that was used to capture the first photos of the Moon in Apollo 11.
The first camera with a flash
In 1960, as the electronic components are more and more miniaturized, the engineers include a discharge lamp with a capacitor which allows an immediate flash and much better than those used before. This is the beginning of taking pictures at night or when the light is low, which is a small revolution.
The first electronic camera
It is once again Kodak which launches the first prototype of digital camera. It weighs 3.6kg at the time which is very heavy, but the camera is able to capture many pixels which is already a success. However, the quality is not there for this model. We are in 1975.
The first digital SLR camera
In 2001, the brand Canon launches the first digital SLR camera, intended mainly for professional photographers with an excellent resolution and a quality much better than the previous versions. It happens then a huge passage of professionals and individuals to digital.
Photo and iPhone
First 3D camera
In 2011, the Fujifilm brand launches a 3D camera with an auto-stereoscopic screen that does not even require the use of 3D glasses as can be done in the cinema. It’s a rather futuristic invention that has won over many users, especially for its photo quality.
Today, smartphones are almost like cameras, even if we feel a real tendency to go back to the roots with the return of the polaroid and disposable cameras that provide a totally different feeling and rendering than what we create on our phone’s interface.