The different facets of light management in a photo shoot
The Kelvin scale
A light bulb may look white to our eyes, but light is made of different colors. The sun at dusk creates an orange light. A fluorescent bulb will create a different color of light than an incandescent bulb.
A camera’s white balance corrects the image so that white objects appear white in the picture under different light sources. Most cameras have an automatic white balance mode, as well as options named after different types of light sources, such as shadow and incandescent. Manual white balance allows you to take a picture of a white object, then the camera will determine the white balance from that image. When using manual white balance, it is possible to accurately choose the color temperature.
Accurate white balance means that objects that are white in real life are also white in the image. Using the Kelvin scale allows us to match our image to reality, or, conversely, to modify it to give a desired mood. In addition to using white balance to create a balanced image or a warm or cool image, photographers can also get creative with the source of their light using flash gelatins. These layers adapt to the flash and create colorful lights like the lights on a dance floor. Since color helps create a mood in a photograph, using gelatins can be a fun way to experiment with light color.
Soft light versus strong light
Natural light vs. supplemental light
In simple terms, daylighting is sunlight. In daylighting photography, the sun acts as the primary source of light. You can manipulate the natural light, for example by bouncing it off reflectors, but you can’t fundamentally change it, as you would with studio lighting.
Daylighting doesn’t just happen outside. Think of early morning dawn light spilling through a window or a soft orange glow enveloping a room before dusk. In these cases, natural light is known as ambient light.
Fill light is usually a very controlled light source that highlights specific areas of the subject. It can be a light that separates you from a background or a side light that illuminates the sweat drops on an athlete after an intense workout. Fill light gives shape to the elements of the photo allowing your eyes to feel the different dimensions of the image.
Easy ways to control fill light are modifiers such as barn doors for example. Basically anything that will reduce and direct the beam of light coming from the light source. This can be a flashlight beam, the sun shining on the back of a subject’s head, or even the bright screen of a tablet or computer.
The magic hours
The golden hour
The blue hour
During the night, you use the light of the moon and stars. It is much less intense than sunlight, so you need very long exposures and a very stable camera. Photographers who shoot cityscapes use the artificial lights present in the scene. Other photographers use external light to illuminate objects in the frame that are otherwise dark (called light painting).